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Subject 101: Fundamentals and diagnostic challenges of viral hepatitis

Fundamentals and diagnostic challenges of viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide.1 Although the incidence rates in the Netherlands for viral hepatitis are low, the inhabitancy of populations from high-risk areas (sub-Saharan Africa, Asia) and the intensified travel habits of the Dutch population towards such places warrants adequate knowledge of this topic.2,3

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Subject 101: Glucosuria – trick or treatment?

Glucosuria – trick or treatment?

The color and odor, quantity, clarity & viscosity, foaminess, saltiness & sweetness of one’s urine was once ample information to determine the flaws in our personal well-being, summarized in the acronym of a modern shoe; ASICS. Anima sana in corpore sano. Both soul and body were represented in our clear-golden liquid.1 A particular disease, diagnosed spot-on through this method, is one of the oldest medical entities ever described.2 Already in 1500 AD, an Egyptian manuscript mentions an epithetical name; too great emptying of the urine. This emptying, defined in 230 AD by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis as διαβήτης (diabetes), “to pass through” (dia – through, betes – to go), was sufficient to characterize the condition for centuries.3 Only in 1675, when Thomas Willis, known for his discovery of the arterial circle in our brain, coined in his Pharmaceutice rationalis the term mellitus, “honey-like”, to differentiate between mellitus and insipidus, “tasteless”, the name diabetes mellitus emerged as a clinical condition.4 The doctor’s trick for diagnosis was simply to taste the urine.

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Subject 101: Oxygenation


Medical doctors on general wards are frequently confronted with patients requiring oxygen suppletion. But which oxygen delivery system should be chosen and why?

This 101 focusses on the topic of oxygenation and its distinction from ventilation. Furthermore, several types of oxygen delivery systems are discussed.

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Subject 101: Cancer incidence in the aging population

Cancer incidence in the aging population

Cancer is the leading cause of death in the Netherlands, with ~48.000 deaths and ~108.000 new diagnoses in 2016.1,2 The incidence of cancer is expected to increase by ~70% in the next 20 years.3 A possible cause for this apparent increase in incidence may be due to improvements in diagnostic modalities and may imply that a proportion of the increasing cancer incidence is due to overdiagnosis, which has been described for breast cancer and thyroid cancer.4,5

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Subject 101: Polycystic ovarium syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovarium syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is the most common endocrine disorders in women of child-bearing age and is an important cause of menstrual irregularity, infertility and androgen excess in women.1 PCOS means literally that there are several (poly) cysts in the ovarium1. But polycystic ovary appearance on ultrasonography is not sufficient to diagnose PCOS and is present in 20-30% of otherwise healthy women as well.2 PCOS is often misunderstood and wrongly diagnosed. Therefore I would like to dedicate this subject 101 to PCOS.

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Subject 101: Delirium


Delirium is a neuropsychiatric disorder that frequently occurs in a hospitalized setting. Despite this, it is often misdiagnosed or not recognized and as a result not treated properly which could have serious consequences for a patient’s health. Due to this fact, I would like to dedicate this Subject 101 to delirium by presenting an overview of the essence of this acute confusional state.

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