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Expert Opinion: Green leafy vegetables protective against cognitive decline?

Green leafy vegetables protective against cognitive decline?

Background

As life expectancy rises worldwide, so does the prevalence of dementia. Consequently, there is a great need for knowledge regarding preventive measures. Nutritional intake is likely to influence cognitive health, but the specific role of different food items remains unclear. Two large prospective studies previously investigated the relation between several types of vegetables and cognitive decline.¹·² Both studies showed an association between green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collards and lettuce) and a slower rate of cognitive decline. The research discussed in this article aimed to identify the individual nutrients that may contribute to the underlying protective mechanisms of green leafy vegetables.

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Expert Opinion: High intelligence is inversely related to problems related to ADHD

High intelligence is inversely related to problems related to ADHD

Background

High intelligence scores have been associated with positive outcomes, such as better behavioural, cognitive and emotional control in addition to good academic performance and improved mental and physical health and mortality.1 However, several studies have found high intelligence scores and superior school performance to correlate with a predisposition towards developing bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia.2-4 For attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) it is argued that high intelligence is inherently related to high activity levels, low impulse control, boredom, frustration and poor attention span. Although, it has also been stated that these problems are not characteristic for ADHD as they are non-pervasive and solely specific for situations that evoke boredom and frustration. Conversely, it is hypothesized that ADHD is underdiagnosed in highly intelligent individuals as high intellect may mask ADHD problems and cognitive deficits. These opposing hypotheses have been heavily debated and not studied methodically. For this Expert Opinion article, the methodology and relevance of the first large general population based study on the relation between intelligence and ADHD problems related to ADHD will be reviewed.

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Expert Opinion: Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

Background

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The recently developed monoclonal antibody evolocumab, targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), has superior lipid-lowering effects to conventional statin therapy, additionally decreasing LDL cholesterol levels by approximately 60%. The trial we will discuss in this article is the first to assess the potential of evolocumab as secondary prevention for cardiovascular events in a large patient cohort.

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Expert Opinion: The influence of testosterone on cognitive functions in older men

The influence of testosterone on cognitive functions in older men

Background

Older age comes with cognitive decline, with 40% of adults ³65 years experiencing age-associated memory loss.1 In addition, 20% of men >60 years have physiologically reduced serum testosterone levels.2 Prior observational studies demonstrated an association between low circulating testosterone and impaired cognitive performance.3,4 Two small trials yielded conflicting results, with one showing memory improvement with testosterone supplementation and one reporting negative findings.5,6 Hence, convincing evidence supporting testosterone intervention in this group is lacking. In this article, we discuss the largest trial to date evaluating the cognitive effects of testosterone treatment in older men.

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